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Vikings - Norsemen  &   Sami   people
Early Scandinavian History    

Duncan MacDonald     
Jakarta   15  April  2021      
   You can download this e-book by Duncan MacDonald in mid 2021

    Vikings cover

Ice Age

Ice Cap Europe
Ice Age Europe   approx 9,000 BCE

Glacier receding
Glacier receding - Norway

Dover straits
Brexit really happened 450,000 years ago
Dover and Calais were originally joined by a chalk ridge 450,000 years ago. This chalk ridge acted as a huge dam, creating the lake formed from melting water in front of North Sea ice sheets. But then the lake overflowed in huge waterfalls, eroding the rock away until it broke and released huge amounts of water into the valley below, creating the now Dover Strait.

Norse Mythology


Odin
Odin ~ regarded as the principal god of Norse mythology.
Odin is a god of war, poetry, magic and wisdom. His job was to unlock the mysteries of the universe.
In appearance he was a tall, old man, with with a flowing beard and only one eye (the other he gave in exchange for wisdom).
He was usually depicted wearing a cloak and a wide brimmed hat and carrying a spear.
Odin was described as hanging himself upside-down for nine days and nights on the cosmological tree, Yggdrasil, in order to gain knowledge of the runic alphabet which he passed on to humanity.

Nordic  Runes
Nordic Runes

Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
The runic alphabet was a writing system used by peoples of Scandinavia, northern Europe, Britain and Iceland from the 3rd century to the 16th or 17th century CE. Runic inscriptions were written from right to left like the earliest alphabets, thus seeming to belong to a more ancient system – perhaps from a Greek alphabet originally learned from the Phoenicians as early as the 8th century BCE.
The word alphabet comes from the Greek letters, alpha and beta.

Thor hammer
Thor is the Norse god of thunder, the sky and agriculture. He is the eldest son of Odin and became the most popular deity of the Norse pantheon. The modern English word for the 4th day of the week, Thursday, was named after him (Thor's Day)


Thor Skrymir
Thor and giant-king Skrymir


balder
Balder the wise and gentle god of light, son of Odin, with his mother Frigga, goddess of motherhood


Njord Njord, god of the sea, wind and weather

Skadi
Skadi, a giantess of the Aesir tribe, went to Asgard, the home of the gods to choose a husband. She had to select her husband from any of the gods present by judging her attraction to their bared feet. The feet she chose belonged to Njord - and Skadi became his second wife.
The marriage failed because Njord preferred to live in his home by the sea, while Skadi was happier in her father's mountain dwelling place.

Valkyrie
A Valkyrie watching a battle between two Norse villages
Valkyries (from Old Norse valkyrja "chooser of the slain") are female figures who select who may die in battle and those who live. Choosing among half of those who die in battle (the other half go to goddess Freyja's afterlife field, Volkvangr) the Valkyries take their chosen to the afterlife hall of the slain, Valhalla, ruled over by the god Odin. Valkyries sometimes take the shape of swans.

Valhalla
Valhalla, (from Old Norse Valholl "hall of the slain") is a majestic enormous hall located in Asgard, ruled over by Odin. Chosen by Valkyries, half of those who die in combat are brought to Valhalla upon death. In Valhalla the dead warriors join the masses of those who have also died in combat.

Idun
Idun, the goddess of youth, giving her Magic Apples of Immortality, to other gods.

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Stone Age


Making Fire
Stone Age Men Making Fire

Sami people tent
Stone Age Sami people

Herding deer Sami herding reindeer


Bronze Age


Bronze age warrior
Early Bronze Age Norse Warrior

Rock engraving
Bronze Age Rock Carving – Bohuslan, Sweden
Sandinavia has the largest amount of Bronze Age rock carvings in Europe.

Norse couple
Bronze Age Norse couple at their village

Nordic women

Norse Women
Stone Age Girl - Egtved Girl - Bronze Age Woman - Iron Age Woman

The Egtved girl was aged 16 years when buried in Denmark in 1370 BCE in an oak coffin.
She wore a loose woolen bodice and a short string skirt ending above her knees
– this indicates she was not married.

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Iron Age


Iron Age farmhouse
Iron Age Norse family and their farmhouse

Tollund man
Tollund man sacrificed 1,300 years ago in Sweden. He was 30-40 years old. The bog preserved his face but his body was reconstructed from his bones. Scandinavian Gods were hungry for sacrifice.

Village Life
Iron Age   Norse   Hamlet

Villiang chief
Iron Age Norse village Chief


Longhouse woman
Iron Age Longhouse Woman


Classical World
The Classical World - 8th century BCE to 6th century CE
Italy, Greece, Malta and The Balkans


Acropolis Plato Aristotle
Ancient Acropolis, Athens                         Plato and Aristotle

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Bronze age boat
Iron Age Hjortspring boat

Knarr Norse boat
Knarr - Norse cargo ship


Danish Longship
Danish Longship

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Roman Empire


Roman Empire
The Roman Empire - late 4th century


Celts Iberian
Iron Age Celts - Iberian Warrior



Teutoburg Forrest
The Battle of Teutoburg Forest 9 CE
The Romans made a desperate but unsuccessful, attempt to storm the Germanic Wall.
Roman General Publius Quinctilius Varus commiting suicide.


Thracian cavalry
Thracians invade Macedonia 429 BCE
Two Thracian cavalrymen - Macedonian infantryman on the ground


Visigoths
Visigoth Warriors


Attila the Hun
Attila - ruler of the Huns 434 to 452 CE         Hun on horseback


Huns attacking
Huns attacking


Mongol warriors
Mongol Warriors

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Hoby grave valuables
Hoby Chieftain's grave valuables - Denmark.
One of the richest Iron Age burials in Northern Europe - 1st century CE

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Viking Age

lindisfarne Vikings with looted treasure after attacking Lindisfarne Monastery on 8 June 793 CE


Vikings Iona
Vikings attacking Iona Monastery in 795 CE

Viking Warriors
Viking Warriors


Hedeby market
Viking Trader with scales, at Hedeby Market
Hedeby was an importaint Danish Viking Age trading settlement at the southeastern end of the Jutland Peninsular.

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