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Duncan MacDonald     
Jakarta   3  September   2020      
Reviewed  26  October   2020       
Covid world map
Covid-19 outbreak world map

What is COVID-19?

    Covid-19 is the infectious disease caused by the most recently discovered coronavirus. This new virus was unknown before the outbreak in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Covid-19 is now a pandemic affecting many countries globally.

What are the Symptoms of Covid-19?

    The most common symptoms of Covid-19 are fever, dry cough and tiredness. Other symptoms that are less common and may affecty some patients include aches and pains, nasal congestion, headache, conjunctivitus, sore throat, diarrhea, loss of taste or smellnor a rash on skin or discoloration of fingers or toes. These symptoms are usually mild and begin gradually. Some people may be infercted but only have very mild symptoms.

Most people (about 80%) recover from the disease without needing hospital treatment. About 1 in every 5 people who gets Covid-19 becomes seriously ill and develop difficulty in breathing. Older people and those suffering with underlying medical problems; high blood pressure, heart and lung problems, diabetes or cancer are at higher risk of developing perious illness. However, anyone can catch Covid-19 and become seriously ill.

People of all ages who experience fever/or cough associated with difficulty breathing/shortness of breath, chest pain/pressure, or loss of speach or movementshould seek meducal attention immediately. It is recomended to call your health care provider or facility first, so the patient can be directed to the right clinic.

How long does the virus survive on surfaces?

    Studies have shown the Corona-19 virus can survive for up to 72 hours on plastic and stainless steel, less than 4 hours on copper and less than 24 hours on cardboard. Surfaces can be cleaned with with common household disinfectants that will kill the virus.

Always clean your hands with and alcohol-based hand rub or wash them in soap and water. Avoid touching your eyes, mouth, or nose.

Are antibiotics effective in preventing or treating Covid-19?

    No. Antibiotics do not work against viruses; they only work on bacterial infections. Covid-19 is caused by a virus, so antibiotics do not work. They should only be used as directed by a physician to treast bacterial infection. [1]

Should we wear Masks?

Mask     Yes. Covering your nose and mouth each and every time you are out in public protects others against exposure to respiratory droplets you might be breathing out. People do not need an N95 mask to make a difference.

Evidence that cloth masks are effective in reducing COVID-19 transmission rates is found in abundance in the July 14 JAMA editorial, which reaches this conclusion:
    “At this critical juncture when COVID-19 is resurging, broad adoption of cloth face coverings is a civic duty, a small sacrifice reliant on a highly effective low-tech solution that can help turn the tide favorably in national and global efforts against COVID-19.” [2]

      Cholesterol                                                             Dengue FeverNext


What is Covid-19 ?

Covid-19 Symptoms

How long does it survive on surfaces

Are Antibiotics effective treatment

Should we wear Masks


1. CDC - Centers for Disease Control 13/5/2020

2. AMA Journal 14 July 2020