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Jakarta Journal # 2

BOOK   2
From 1811 to Independence 1949

Duncan MacDonald     
Jakarta  31  January   2016      
 The recorded history of Indonesia dates back over 2,000 years. This is the 2nd Journal, covering events from the British invasion of Batavia in 1811. up to declaring of Indonesian Independence in 1945. We look at the impact of some of the larger than life players who were; involved in the European discovery of Borobudur; the take over by the Dutch again, the Diponegoro War; the rise of Nationalism in the 20th century; the Japanese invasion in 1942, and the events leading up to Independence in 1945.

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Europe Dutch East Indies                         The Dutch East Indies size ~ compared to Europe

Dutch Indies                                 Dutch East Indies

  Borobudur Buddhist Temple 35m high, after renovation           Prambanan Hindu Temple 47m

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Fatahilla                     Fatahillah ~ conquered Sunda Kelapa in 1527 ~ renamed it Jayakarta

Batavia Dutch ships
          Asian and Dutch ships off Fort Batavia

Batavia Castle                                         Batavia Castle 1619 - 1809

Daendels Palace
     Daendels Palace ~ Central Jakarta (completed 1828)
                                        Governor Herman Willem Daendels (1815-1818) ~ by Raden Saleh

Run New York
            Run Island    Indonesia                            New York City
     In 1667 upon signing the Treaty of Breda  the English swapped Run  for a Dutch outpost called New Amsterdam nine thousand miles (14,480 km) away on the eastern seaboard of North America. ~ The English renamed it New York.
cook     Captain James Cook             Lord Minto                Major-General Sir Samuel Auchmuty

British Invasion
                         British Invasion of Batavia ~ 4 August 1811

Old Batavia
                                                  Old Batavia

Janssens Auchmuty
                         Jan Willem Janssens                       Sir Samuel Auchmuty

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Penang                                           Georgetown in Penang 1814

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Edinburgh Uni Leyden
    Old College of Edinburgh University 18th century        John Casper Leyden

St Andrews
                                    St. Leonards College, St. Andrews ~ founded 1512

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St Andrews College  sheep
                        St. Andrews College of Divinity ~ 1767                 Scottish sheep

                                     Malucca 18th century                                Urang-utang in trousers

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Leyden & French brigantine
                         Leyden's ship pursued by French brigantine 1805

Mr & Mrs Minto
        Gilbert Elliot ~ First Lord of Minto      Agnes Murray-Kynynmond ~ wife of Lord Minto

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Meester Cornelis
                                               Fort Meester Cornelis

Yogyakarta Kraton
             Yogyakarta Kraton    with a pair of Dwarapala guardian statues

Gillespie Greencastle
         Lieutenant Robert Rollo Gillespie in front of Greencastle, County Down, Ireland 1791.
  Greencastle is a royal castle originally build in 13th century. It was attacked and taken by Edward Bruce in 1316, brother of Robert the Bruce, King of Scots [1306-1329].

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Gillespie Vellore
                    Colonel Robert Rollo Gillespie           Fort Vellore mutiny 1806

                              Yogyakarta 1814

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         John Casper Leyden's grave

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Sir Walter Scott
     Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832)     Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border      The Lord of the Isles

Horsefield Crawfurd Mackenzie             Dr Thomas Horsfield           John Crawfurd                Colonel Colin Mackenzie

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Batavia                                                        Batavia   c1780

East India House
          East India House - Leadenhall Street London – 1817

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Raffles Olivia Maryanne
          Thomas Stamford Raffles                   Olivia Raffles                   Maryanne Raffles

Alfred Wallace in Borneo      Alfred Russel Wallace      James Brook ‘White Rajah’ of Sarawak

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Indian Sepoys 1817
                                                  Indian Sepoys 1817

Pakubuwono IV - Semar
                 Susuhunan Pakubuwono IV             Semar the jester-he never makes mistakes

Sultan HB III
      Sultan Hamengku Buwono III                Stamford Raffles                John Crawfurd

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                                          Gurkhas 1815

Rollo Gillespie statue    Gillespie killed in action 31 October 1814          Statue Major-General Sir Robert Rollo Gillespie

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Batak Javanese
                                             Batak warriors                                 Javanese with Kris

Shinta Borobudur 2009
The History of Java ~ published 1817          Shinta at Borobudur   2009

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         Prince Diponegoro and the Goddess of the Southern Ocean

Merapi moon Diponegoro
                  Mount Merapi volcano erupted 1822                        Prince Diponegoro

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Sentot Dutch
1830 Ali Basa Prawiradirja (Sentot)      Dutch & Padris soldiers fighting over Dutch standard

Diponegoro submits
                      Submission of Prince Diponegoro to General de Kock at Magelang 1830
                                                                                                      by Nicolas Pieneman

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Prince Henry      Autobiographical Chronicle of Prince Diponegoro      Prince Henry of the Netherland

Diponegoro-3 statue
     Diponegoro statue, Jakarta     Diponegoro Tomb, Fort Rotterdam

Harvesting coffee rice
                              Harvesting coffee      Java                           Rice Farmers

Max Havelaar
                                   Max Havelaar                      Eduard Douwes Dekker

     Java Man
                        Java Man skull               Java Man reconstructed
The Java Man skull was discovered by Dutch geologist Eugine Dubois (1858-1940) on the banks of the Solo River in East Java in 1891. Estimated to be between 700,000 and 1 million years old, it was at the time of its discovery the oldest hominid fossil ever found and remains the type specimen for Homo erectus.

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Cik di Tero
          Teungku Cik di Tiro           Teungku Imam Bonjol           Si Singamangaradja

Batavia 19th century
                             Batavia 19th century

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Dutch colonials
   19th century Javanese lady in Batavia           Dutch colonials with their servants

Bali 1906
                    ‘Badung Puputan’ (ritual suicide or finishing) ~ Bali 20 Sept 1906
While Dutch soldiers preparted to attack the Badung Palace (now Denpasar), the King and his entourage dressed in white, committed ritual suicide. The Dutch then opened fire with cannon & rifles, massacring over 1,000 Balinese.

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Hatta wife
     Sitri Rahmiata Hatta                       Mohammad Hatta
     (wife, married 1945)

Sukarno Bandung Tech College
            Sukarno as HSB student 1916          Bandung Technical College 1929

Hatta Tan
                  Mohammad Hatta            Tan Malaka                     Tjipto Mangoenkoesoemo

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Dutch troope c1930
                             Dutch troops in Surabaya c1930

Japanese Emperor
               Emperor Hirohito               Japanese soldiers ~ 1942          Dr Seuss ~ War Bonds

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Japs in Surabaya Jkta
        Japanese troops entering Surabaya           Japanese armoured vehicles in Jakarta 1942

   [L] Jan O’Herne (Dutch citizen) aged 19, was forced by the
    Japanese to become a ‘comfort woman’ in Semarang in 1942.
          [R] Ms Jan Ruff-O’Herne at Amnesty International, Washington DC in 2007.
          Jan made a new life after the war in Australia. She died 19-Aug-2019, aged 96.

Comfort women
                                       Dutch East Indies comfort women

General Imamura -Comfort women
    General Hitoshi Imamura - Commander of the
Japanese invasion army of the Dutch East Indies           Indonesian comfort women

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                         Hiroshima after the atom bomb          Nagasaki strike photo   9-Aug-1945

            Sukarno accompanied by Hata declares Independence in Jakarta   17-Aug-1945

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Malaby Surabaya
    Brigadier Aubertin Walter Sothern Mallaby CIE OBE          Battle of Surabaya Nov 1945

Sudirman Nasution 2
                                     General Sudirman                     General Abdul Haris Nasution

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Rawagede Westerling
     Dutch troops attack Rawagede village ~ 1947                 Captain Raymond Westerling

HB IX Sukarno
  Coronation of Sultan Hamengku Buwono IX     Sukarno on his return to Yogyakarta from Banka
   18 March 1940                                                   is met by Hamengku Buwono IX - 6 July 1949

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Sultan HB Suharto Hata
Lieutenant-Colonel Suharto reports to           Hatta and Sultan Hamengku Buwono IX
Hamengku Buwono IX that his forces are          attending the Inter-Indonesian
ready to enter Yogyakarta on 1 May 1949         Conference at Yogyakarta July 1949

  Lieutenant-Colonel Suharto               Supriyadi           President Suharto and Madam Tien

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Sukarno Sjahir Hatta
  Sukarno ~ President      Sutan Sjahrir ~ Prime Minister      Mohammad Hatta ~ Vice-President

Sultan GK IX 12-1949
       27 Dec 1949 Sultan Hamengku Buwono IX (left front) sworn in as Defence Minister at Merdeka Palace

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Dutch Hatta signing Independence
    Indonesian Vice-president Hatta (2nd left) and Dutch Queen Julianna at signing ceremony which took place at the Royal Palace in Amsterdam 27-Dec-1949. With the treaty signed, the Dutch officially recognised Indonesian sovereignty
Sukarno Istana Merdeka
                           President Sukarno at Istana Merdeka 29 Dec 1949

Sukazrno World Leaders                                      President Sukarno with World Leaders
1961 President J.F. Kennedy, daughter Caroline, President Sukarno -
            1961 President Sukarno, Nikita Khrushchev - 1956 President Sukarno, Marilyn Monroe -
                                    1960 President Sukarno, Fidel Castro -

1947 Sukarno - 1959 President Sukarno, Prime Minister R.G. Menzies - Sukarno's signature

     Sukarno's nine wives wives-1
              Siti Oetari    Inggit Garnasih                Fatmawati                Hartini
              Ratna Dewi    Kartini Manoppo    Haryati         Yurike Sanger    Heldy Djafar

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This complete historical novel can be downloaded as a FREE e-book on Smashwords.
Available on iPad / iBooks, Kindle, Nook, Sony, & most e-reading apps including Stanza & Aldiko.
Just click the following link     >> download free e-book dMAC Digest Vol 6 No 1 - Djakarta Journal #2

      Jakarta Journal #1                                 Risk History Next

     >> view illustrations for Culann, Celtic Warrior Monk - Book 1


Dutch East Indies
Borobudur & Pramban

Asian & Dutch ships
     off Fort Batavia

Senopati, Sultan
    Agung, Mangkubumi

Run Island, New York
Captain Cook, Lord Minto,
     James Auchmuty

Penang 1814
Old College of Edinburgh
     University 18th century

St Leonards College,
     St Andrews, 1512

St Andrews College of Divinity,
     John Leyden

Malucca, Urangutan trousers
Leydens ship & French
     brigantine 1805

Borobudur & Pramban

Lord Minto & wife
Meester Cornelis
Lieutenant Robert Rollo

Colonel Rollo Gillespie,
     Vellore mutiny 1806

Batavia Castle
British Invasion of Batavia 1811
Old Batavia
Yogyakarta 1814
John Casper Leyden's grave
Sir Walter Scott
Thomas Horsfield,
     John Crawfurd,
     Colin Mackenzie

Batavia c1780
East India House 1817
Thomas Stamford & Olivia
     Raffles, Maryanne Raffles.

Alfred Wallace, James Brook
Indian Sepoys 1817
Susuhunan Pakubuwono IV,
     Semar the jester.

Sultan Hamengku Buwono III,
     Stamford Raffles,
     John Crawfurd

Gurkhas 1815
Major-General Gillespie
     killed 1814

Batak warriors, Javanese
     with Kris

The History of Java,
     Shinta at Borobudur 2009

Prince Diponegoro & Goddess
     of the Southern Ocean

Mount Merapi errupted 1822
Sentot 1830, Dutch & Padris

Diponegoro submits to
     de Kock, Magelang 1830

Chronicle, Prince Henry
Diponegoro statue, Tomb
Harvesting coffee, Rice farmers
Max Havelaar, Eduard Douwes

Java Man skull
Cik di Tiro, Imam Bonjol,
     Si Singamangaradja

Batavia 19th century
Javanese lady, Dutch colonials
     with servants

Badung Puputan-ritual suicide
     Bali 1908

Sukarno HSB student 1916,
     Bandung Technical College

Mohammad Hatta, Tan Malaka,
     Tjipto Mangoenkoesoemo

Dutch troops in Surabaya c1930
Emperor Hirohito,
     Japanese soldiers 1942,
     Dr Seuss-war bonds

Japanese troops Surabaya,
     Japanese in Jakarta 1942

General Imamura,
     Indonesian Comfort Women

Hiroshima after atom bomb,
     Nagasaki strike 9-Aug-1946

Sukarno with Hatta declare
     Independence 17-Aug-1945

Brigadier Mallaby, Battle of
     Surabaya Nov-1945

General Sudirman,
     General Nasution

Dutch troops attack Rawagede,
    Captain Raymond Westerling

Sultan Hamengku Buwono IX,

Lieutenant-Colonel Suharto,
     Hatta, Hamengku IX 1949

Suharto, Supryadi, Madam Tien
Hamengku Buwonon IX as
     Defense Minister

Hatta & Queen Julianna signing

President Sukarno at Istana
     Merdeka 29-Dec-1949

Sukarno's 9 wives